We target cattail spraying between July 1st to September 20th when the cattails are actively growing. We retreat during the same time period the next season. We have done some mowing of cattail in the fall and winter after they have been treated. This seems to speed up the restoration to open water habitat by knocking down the dead plant material and thus exposing any remaining live cattail to retreatment the flowing year by hand spraying or aerial spraying. However, mechanical treatment is totally weather dependent as some of the marshes were dry two years ago but for the past nine months we have been too wet to even get off of the main road. After every site has been treated twice we feel that we can maintain the open and shallow water habitat with regular treatment of the small stands of cattail that will re-colonize in the coming years. It is a fair amount of work but there are significant benefits.